1. Answers

Push state vs. hash-based routing: which to use?

    In the world of React.js single-page apps, there are two types of routing: push-state, and hash-based. Each of these have their strengths and weaknesses.

    Now as you may know, most of the React ecosystem focuses on push-state routing, using the HTML5 History API and (sometimes) server-side rendering with Node.js. There are a number of reasons for this, the two main ones being:

    • The HTML5 History API makes it possible to have multiple routes indexed by Google
    • Server-side rendering gives your app a few milliseconds faster load time on the first page load

    In contrast, hash-based routing works by only considering the part of the URL starting with the # character, which I’ll refer to as the hash. This vastly simplifies things for a few reasons:

    • The server never sees the hash, meaning it is handled 100% in-browser
    • Changes to the hash do not by default result in page reloads
    • Buttons and links are just plain old javascript-free <a> tags

    So let me just put this out there:

    In most cases, designing your new app with push-state routing is a mistake.


    Firstly, Most apps are hidden behind a login screen, and thus have at most one page which needs to be indexed by Google. This means that the only benefit you can possibly receive from push-state is the performance improvement. And before you ask - no, removing #/ from your page URLs is not a benefit.

    Secondly, unless you’re Facebook, you probably shouldn’t be optimising for a few milliseconds speedup.

    And thirdly, unless you write your entire backend with server-side rendering in mind, you won’t get that performance improvement anyway.

    Maybe you’re an exception to these rules - but if you’re not, push-state routing adds enormous complexity for little to no benefit. In contrast, a roll-your-own hash-based router can be implemented in 23 lines of React:

    // Renders the application for the given route
    var Application = React.createClass({
      render: function() {
        switch (this.props.location[0])  {
        case '':
          return <div><h1>Index Page</h1></div>;
          return <div><h1>Not Found</h1></div>;
    // Split location into `/` separated parts, then render `Application` with it
    function handleNewHash() {
      var location = window.location.hash.replace(/^#\/?|\/$/g, '').split('/');
      var application = <Application location={location} />;
      ReactDOM.render(application, document.getElementById('react-app'));
    // Handle the initial route and browser navigation events
    window.addEventListener('hashchange', handleNewHash, false);

    But James, you say - this looks much more complex than routing with react-router! Well, sure - it takes a few more lines within your application. But it also means you’ve got one less dependency to worry about. And in particular, one less dependency that has a history of changing its API to something beyond recognition.

    No don’t get me wrong - push-state routing does have its place. However, using it where it isn’t needed is effectively gold-plating your app - wasting precious resources on unneeded features when what you really want is to just get the job done.

    So next time you’re designing a new app, don’t shoot yourself in the foot; design your routing based on requirements, not trends.

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