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ES6 classes vs. function components: which to use?

React has two different ways of declaring components: functions and classes. Functions are quicker to create, but provide less features. So how can you decide which to use?

    James K Nelson

    James is the editor of React Armory, and has been creating things with JavaScript for over 15 years.

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    There are three rules I use to decide which way to declare my components.

    1. If your component needs access to lifecycle methods, use a class
    2. If your component needs access to this, use a class
    3. Otherwise, use a function component

    But where do these rules come from?

    Well, rule #1 is easy: functions can’t have methods. And if they can’t have methods, they definitely can’t have lifecycle methods. So if you need to manage the component’s lifecycle, you’ll need to use a class.

    Rule #2 is also pretty easy – function component don’t have a this to access! You can see this in action in this demo:

    function IsThisUndefined(props) {
      return <div>{props.title} {this === undefined ? 'Yes' : 'No'}!</div>
      <IsThisUndefined title='Is this undefined?' />,

    But rule #3 is a little less obvious. Sure, declaring a component using a function will save you 2 lines over a class. But class components provide extra features like state, ref and lifecycle methods. Even if your component doesn’t need these features now, there is a good chance you’ll need them later. And consistency has some value of itself. So why would you want to use function components at all?

    Actually, the answer is simple: simplicity has value in and of itself. Extra features only give you extra value if you’re actually using them. In fact, the extra constraints imposed by function components will gently steer you towards creating reusable components. It’s almost magical.

    So really, the rule is simple:

    If you don’t need the extra features provided by class components, don’t use class components.

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